It is true that the burden of proving alienage rests upon the Government. This Tenet did by charging Medicaid for interpreter services allegedly provided by Clinica; in other circumstances, this would be a legitimate cost item. A review of the background of the origins of the Fourteenth Amendment is helpful in framing these arguments. ", Of more relevance (though no precedential authority) is the concurrence of Seventh Circuit Judge Richard Posner in Oforji v. Ashcroft.47 That case involved an asylum claim filed by a Nigerian national who was the mother of two daughters who had been born in the United States. 33 "Birthright Citizenship: Is it the Right Policy for America? 30 "Birthright Citizenship: Is it the Right Policy for America? And, most importantly, it provides the chance to participate in the world's oldest existing democracy.9. Is he right? If you were born on the island of Ireland on or before 1 st January 2005, you will automatically be eligible for Irish citizenship. It doesn't matter whether you were born on U.S. or foreign soil. ", Center for Immigration Studies blog, June 26, 2017. 14 "Non-U.S. Citizens, Federal Student Aid", U.S. Department of Education, undated. Id., at 693. He brought the court case under the qui tam provisions of the Federal False Claims Act, filing, on behalf of the government, against Tenet and Health Management Associates, Inc., another hospital firm. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) World Factbook, for example, states that Germany does not offer citizenship by birth, and offers citizenship by descent only if at least one parent is a German citizen or a resident alien who has lived in Germany for at least eight years.6 Similarly, according to the CIA, the United Kingdom does not offer birthright citizenship, and offers citizenship by descent only if at least one parent is a citizen of the United Kingdom.7. All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2021 worldatlas.com, Countries Who Offer Birthright Citizenship, Countries That Don't Recognize Dual Citizenship, 10 Countries Where Women Far Outnumber Men, The Most Famous Serial Killers In America And Their Twisted Crimes. The decision was a response to a controversy surrounding birth tourism and the high-profile case of Man Levette Chen, a Chinese national who traveled to Northern Ireland so that her daughter would be born an Irish citizen. Were more aliens to realize that they could simply make a fraudulent oral representation of U.S. birth to avoid removal, it would add to the already significant burdens on our immigration system. As The Atlantic has noted, many countries that used to have birthright citizenship have done away with the practice.8 It explains: France did away with birthright citizenship in 1993, following the passage of the Méhaignerie Law. The following countries allow the principle of jus soli. 74 7 FAM 1115(b), quoting Gordon, Immigration Law and Procedure, Part 8, Nationality and Citizenship, Chapter 92, 92.03, New York: Matthew Bender, 2007. "77, Back in 1989, Shih's mother boarded a jet bound for New York, tourist visa in hand. "40 CRS contends, however, that the Court "has made pronouncements arguably relevant to that question while addressing other issues,"41 particularly in Plyler v. Doe.42. 11 "What are the Benefits and Responsibilities of Citizenship? While a false claim to U.S. citizenship is a ground of inadmissibility,82 this presents little impediment to an individual who would be otherwise removable anyway. You can claim Bulgarian citizenship by birth if you were born in Bulgaria, as long as you did not get citizenship of another country at birth by descent. The Center for Immigration Studies (CIS) estimates that in 2014, $2.35 billion in taxpayer funding went to pay for more than 273,000 births to illegal immigrants. Citizenship in this country offers the most significant economic opportunities. Jus soli was part of the English common law, in contrast to jus sanguinis, which derives from the Roman law that influenced the civil-law systems of continental Europe. How To Get U.S Citizenship By Birth. ..." Justice Gray concluded that "[every] citizen or subject of another country, while domiciled here, is within the allegiance and the protection, and consequently subject to the jurisdiction, of the United States." British Citizenship by Birth (1981-1-2) Abandoned: Child found abandoned and born after 01.01.1983. Birthright citizenship in the US dates back to the Fourteenth Amendment. Proponents of a narrower reinterpretation of that phrase argue that the term "jurisdiction" can have multiple meanings, and that in the Citizenship Clause, "jurisdiction" should be read to mean "complete jurisdiction" based on undivided allegiance and the mutual consent of the sovereign and the subject. Notably, 7 Foreign Affairs Manual (FAM) 1100, which is captioned "Acquisition and Retention of U.S. "49 His dispositive statement on this issue should, therefore, be given due consideration. Birthright citizenship, also referred to as jus soli which is Latin to mean right of the soil, is the right of citizenship that one acquires for being born in a particular country regardless of the nationality of their parents. President Trump's assertion that he would end birthright citizenship by an as-yet-unpublished executive order has brought this issue into focus. 44 See Alexandra M. Wyatt, "Birthright Citizenship and Children Born in the United States to Alien Parents: An Overview of the Legal Debate", Congressional Research Service, October 28, 2015, p. 11. Specifically, "because there were concerns that the Civil Rights Act might be subsequently repealed or limited the Congress took steps to include similar language when it considered the draft of the Fourteenth Amendment."31. This includes Indefinite Leave to Remain (ILR), Armed Forces Exemption, or Right of Abode. In the absence of any statement in the Constitution or federal statutes that U.S. citizenship was acquired by right of birth in the United States, citizenship at birth generally was construed in the context of the English common law. This has been termed a "consensual" approach to citizenship. "39, Similarly, CRS has stated: "The Supreme Court has not directly addressed whether the Citizenship Clause necessarily requires U.S. citizenship to be granted to persons born in the United States to unlawfully present aliens. The parents do not automatically gain citizenship through the birth of a child.20 VII. They made up 3.5 [percent] of the nation's total population, but accounted for a higher share of births because the immigrant population overall (lawful and unauthorized) includes a higher share of women in their childbearing years and has higher birthrates than the overall U.S. population.53, All told, according to Pew, "there were 4.7 million U.S.-born children younger than 18 living with unauthorized-immigrant parents."54. Some countries also practice a restricted version of the rule of jus soli for children born of certain immigrants only. Based on the Academies' work, CIS estimates that the average illegal immigrant and his or her progeny create a net fiscal drain of $82,290 in their lifetimes, taking into account all the taxes they will pay and all the services they will use.58, Those costs begin at birth. Is he right? "85 That article continued:86. The first group of individuals identified under section 301(a) of the INA as nationals and citizens at birth, generally, is the group that receives the most public attention20 and the one that raises the most significant public policy issues.21 Section 301(a) of the INA tracks the language in the first sentence of the first section of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution, which states: "All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States … Almost all European, African, Asian, and Oceanic countries grant their citizenship through the principle of jus sanguinis, meaning "right of blood," whereby children inherit citizenship through their parents but not their birthplace. As then-Chairman John Hostettler of the House Judiciary Committee's Subcommittee on Immigration, Border Security, and Claims explained at a 2005 subcommittee hearing: "Hamdi ... was born in Louisiana to Saudi parents who were in the U.S. on temporary visas. Later, they were able to bring in wives and children and sometimes even bring in paper sons themselves. Under the 1977 Act, persons born on Canadian soil, in the Canadian territorial sea, or in the airspace above Canada on or after February 15, 1977 are granted Canadian citizenship. 6 "World Factbook: Europe: Germany", Central Intelligence Agency, undated. The women had little information and little choice and most of them went to where they were sent. India abolished jus soli on December 3, 2004. ", "Dual Citizenship, Birthright Citizenship, and the Meaning of Sovereignty", "Hamdi voices innocence, joy about reunion", "In California, 'birth tourism' appears to grow", Jessica Vaughan Discusses Amnesty and Migrant Caravans, Andrew Arthur Discusses the Effects of Immigration Policy, Mark Krikorian on C-SPAN Discusses E-Verify, The Nation’s Battle to Prevent Jihadist Infiltration, How a Left-Right Coalition Blocked Immigration Reform, Mapping the Impact of Immigration on Public Schools, Big Tech Green Card Giveaway Cleared Senate, but Expired with the 116th Congress, Lone Crusader Wins Battle Against Anti-Citizen Discrimination by Tech Firm, The Flip Side of Birthright Citizenship: Americans Seek Foreign Passports, Stopping the Practice of Citizenship for Sale, Federal Judge Blocks Biden's 100-Day 'Pause' on Removals, The Dangerous Gambit of the Enforcement Moratorium and Amnesty Legislation, The Canard of 'Hyper' ICE Enforcement Under Trump. As he reported in October 2016: The Justice Department has announced a financial settlement of a complicated civil and criminal case against Tenet Healthcare Corporation in which the company was forced to pay back to the feds more than a half a billion dollars that it had received for providing fraud-related maternity services to illegal alien mothers giving birth to thousands and thousands of instant U.S. citizens over a period of many years. Citizenship by Birth Citizenship by Descent (through parents) This type of citizenship is automatically conferred to any individual who is born in the Commonwealth of Dominica on the basis of jus soli, also known as “right of the soil”, irrespective of the nationality of his/her parents. Bilokumsky v. Tod: "It is true that alienage is a jurisdictional fact; and that an order of deportation must be predicated upon a finding of that fact. Jus soli, commonly referred to as birthright citizenship, is the right of anyone born in the territory of a state to nationality or citizenship. Under case law, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) bears the burden of proving alienage in every removal case. "73 Similarly, "a child born on a plane in the United States or flying over its territory would acquire United States citizenship at birth. Williams was fired for pointing out the lack of interpreter services, but he more than got his revenge. Citizenship acquisition arises in numerous forms, such as by place of birth, by descent or through naturalization. Other countries, including New Zealand and Australia, have also abolished their birthright-citizenship laws in recent years. Citizenship by birth Details The Constitution of Kenya Chapter Three - Citizenship . 26 Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. 393 (1857). The taxpayers of the United States would also save the costs of providing government benefits to those erstwhile U.S. citizens. 66 "Immediate Relative", Cornell University Law School, Legal Information Institute, undated. As the Supreme Court held in the 1923 case United States ex rel. 31 "Fourteenth Amendment and Citizenship", Library of Congress, updated July 31, 2015. 76 "Hamdi voices innocence, joy about reunion", CNN, October 14, 2004; see also Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, 542 U.S. 507 (2004). Return to Citizenship home page Contact the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade for all questions about citizenship based on a connection to an Irish relative if you were born outside Ireland. Jennifer's honesty highlights the absurdity of a lax birthright citizenship policy and raises significant questions of allegiance and assimilation. 15 Section 240 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), "An immigration judge shall conduct proceedings for deciding the inadmissibility or deportability of an alien.". By raising the possibility of limiting birthright citizenship by executive order, President Trump has brought to the fore an as-yet-unresolved legal issue: whether a child born to an alien unlawfully present in the United States automatically becomes a U.S. citizen at birth under the Fourteenth Amendment. Usually in immigration court, this burden-shifting occurs in connection with what are referred to as "derivative citizenship claims".81 In a handful of cases, however, aliens attempt to avoid removal by fraudulently claiming that they were, in fact, born in the United States, and therefore are U.S. citizens. Citizenship is currently offered to all children who are born in 39 countries (with the exception of children of diplomats), most of which are in the Western Hemisphere. While either of these figures represents a decline from the 330,000 births to illegal alien parents in 2009, it is still a significant number of children.52 In addition, Pew has reported that: About 11.1 million unauthorized immigrants lived in the U.S. in 2014. 2003). Needless to say, I cannot tell you that evidence was fraudulent, but it is indicative of the issue. 23 See Alexandra M. Wyatt, "Birthright Citizenship and Children Born in the United States to Alien Parents: An Overview of the Legal Debate", Congressional Research Service, October 28, 2015. 32 Compare 14 Stat. City officials shut the operation down after a resident complained about traffic, density, and building code issues. However, it may come as a shock but many people in the United States have already obtained their U.S citizenship without them realizing it and most of them still ask the question “How To Get U.S Citizenship By Birth” without knowing that they are already citizens. This will have happened in one of three ways: By birth in the UK on or after 1 January 1983 and at the time of your birth either your mother or your father was a British citizen or permanent resident in the UK. Persons born in the territory of Antigua and Barbuda are granted citizenship. Andrew R. Arthur is a resident fellow in law and policy at the Center for Immigration Studies. 288) by such citizen parent, or any periods during which such citizen parent is physically present abroad as the dependent unmarried son or daughter and a member of the household of a person (A) honorably serving with the Armed Forces of the United States, or (B) employed by the United States Government or an international organization as defined in section 1 of the International Organizations Immunities Act, may be included in order to satisfy the physical-presence requirement of this paragraph. The Medicaid program, understandably, forbids such practices. 35 United States v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649 (1898). ", Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Immigration and Border Security of the House Committee on the Judiciary, 114th Congress 6-7 (2015), statement of Dr. John C. Eastman, Henry Salvatori Professor of Law & Community Service, Chapman University, Dale E. Fowler School of Law; Founding Director, The Claremont Institute Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence. Applicant under 10. ", Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Immigration and Border Security of the House Committee on the Judiciary, 114th Congress 6-7 (2015), statement of Dr. John C. Eastman, Henry Salvatori Professor of Law & Community Service, Chapman University, Dale E. Fowler School of Law; Founding Director, The Claremont Institute Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence. 65 "Green Card for Immediate Relatives of U.S. Citizen", U.S. In many cases, parents of such children enjoy a faster naturalization timeline as well. Jennifer says she is interested in having kids of her own who will go to college in America. Portugal. The decision retroactively stripped tens of thousands of people born to undocumented foreign parents of their citizenship and rendered them "ghost citizens," according to Amnesty International. Australian citizenship by birth – children born before 20 August 1986 acquired Australian citizen by simply using their birth certificate issued by an Australian Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages. 1567, a bill "To amend the Immigration and Nationality Act to deny citizenship at birth to children born in the United States of parents who are not citizens or permanent resident aliens," was referred to the House Subcommittee on Immigration, Border Security, and Claims. The costs of births for the children of illegal aliens is staggering. Though the United Kingdom Home Office rejected Chen's application, the decision was overturned by the European Court of Justice in 2004. 3, 1992. When pressed about whether Indians living on reservations would be covered by the clause since they were "most clearly subject to our jurisdiction, both civil and military," for example, Senator Lyman Trumbull, a key figure in the drafting and adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment, responded that "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States meant subject to its "complete" jurisdiction; "[n]ot owing allegiance to anybody else." It should be noted that this differs from the process by which a person naturalises as a British citizen. In the case of a U.S. citizen acting as a surrogate parent abroad, the child will only be eligible to acquire U.S. citizenship at birth if a U.S. citizen donated the egg or sperm. Citizenship and Nationality",70 contains guidance for State Department and other government employees on assessing whether an individual is a citizen or national of the United States.71 Under 7 FAM 1114(a), "[p]ersons born on ships located within U.S. internal waters ... are considered to have been born in the United States. What does being an Irish citizen mean? The purpose of the rule was to grant citizenship to the recently freed slaves, and the exception for children of foreign diplomats and heads of state shows that Congress does not read the citizenship clause of the Fourteenth Amendment literally. Citizenship Based on Birth in Country – May 2012 The Law Library of Congress -5 one year and may be extended while the qualifying conditions are still met. 58 Steven A. Camarota, "Deportation vs. the Cost of Letting Illegal Immigrants Stay", Center for Immigration Studies Backgrounder, August 3, 2017. Tenet was charged with, essentially, bribing another, much smaller for-profit health care organization, Clinica de Mama, to refer its illegal alien pregnant mothers to Tenet's hospitals. Proof of citizenship: Birth Certificate issued by the Registrar General’s Department of Jamaica. ... We estimate that the cost to taxpayers for births to immigrants (legal and illegal) is roughly $5.3 billion — $2.4 billion of which is for illegal immigrants."59. If a child is found in Bulgaria with unknown parents, they also receive Bulgarian citizenship. CIS has determined: "Illegal immigrants account for 11 percent (198,000) of all publicly funded births. Also, if you were born in Ireland on or after 1 st January 2005 and one of your parents was an Irish citizen at the time of your birth, you will be eligible for Irish citizenship by birth. Some countries are moving away from the application of this rule of jus soli of late. 50 Jeffrey S. Passel and D'Vera Cohn, "Number of babies born to unauthorized immigrants in U.S. continues to decline", Pew Research Center, October 26, 2016. ", Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Immigration and Border Security of the House Committee on the Judiciary, 114th Congress 6-7 (2015), statement of Jon Feere. Types Of Crimes By Number Of Offenses In The US, The 10 Biggest Shopping Malls In The World. In order for a child to acquire United States citizenship abroad, he or she must have a biological connection to the U.S. citizen parent or parents. But a broad interpretation of our nation's birthright citizenship clause is creating situations that threaten to break down the nation's social cohesion.69, Not only is the possibility that there would be such "attenuated Americans" not as farfetched as it might sound, but it is likely more common than most would think. There is one final consequence of the popular interpretation of the Fourteenth Amendment in light of the Supreme Court's decision in Wong Kim Ark. British Citizenship by Birth Before 1983. ", These birthright citizenship principles were not extended to slaves, or generally to Native Americans.24. The positively phrased "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States might easily have been intended to describe a broader grant of citizenship than the negatively-phrased language from the 1866 Act, the argument goes ... that birth on U.S. soil is alone sufficient for citizenship. 62 Jon Feere, "Birth Tourists Come from Around the Globe", Center for Immigration Studies Backgrounder, August 26, 2015. This rule of acquiring citizenship is common in the Americas as compared to the other parts of the world. Jamaican Citizenship by Birth refers to the following: Any person born in Jamaica prior to August 6, 1962, who was on that date a citizen of the United Kingdom and its colonies. But the relatively sparse debate we have regarding this provision of the Fourteenth Amendment does not support such a reading. Even children born in the US to non-resident foreigners on vacation acquire US citizenship by birth, even if they are also citizens of their parents' home country. "43 As CRS explains it: While the threshold inquiry in Plyler centered on the "person within [a state's] jurisdiction" language of the Equal Protection Clause, the Court also analogized that phrase to the use of "jurisdiction" in the Citizenship Clause, in a footnote, stating: Although we have not previously focused on the intended meaning of this phrase ["within its jurisdiction"], we have had occasion to examine the first sentence of the Fourteenth Amendment, which provides that "[all] persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States. 27 Chapter 31, 39 Congress, Session 1, "An Act: To protect all persons in the United States in their civil rights, and furnish the means of their vindication", April 9, 1866. (ˈsoʊ laɪ, -li) n. the principle that the country of citizenship of a child is determined by its country of birth. 79 United States ex rel. 21 Alexandra M. Wyatt, "Birthright Citizenship and Children Born in the United States to Alien Parents: An Overview of the Legal Debate", Congressional Research Service, October 28, 2015. Jus soli is the predominant rule in the Americas, but it is rare elsewhere. This rule of acquiring citizenship is common in the Americas as compared to the other parts of the world. And if you have children, they'll also acquire U.S. citizenship through you at birth. Birthright citizenship, also referred to as jus soli which is Latin to mean “right of the soil,” is the right of citizenship that one acquires for being born in a particular country regardless of the nationality of their parents. Exceptions include children of foreign diplomats and wartime enemies. "62 Specifically, Feere recounted reports of birth tourism from China, Taiwan, South Korea, Nigeria, Turkey, Russia, and Mexico.63, It has been reported that there are "at least 500 companies" offering birth tourism services in China. 2 Yasmeen Serhan and Uri Friedman, "America Isn't the 'Only Country' With Birthright Citizenship", The Atlantic, October 31, 2018. A person born outside Malta who proves that he is a descendant in the direct line of an ascendant born in Malta of a parent also born in Malta shall be entitled to be registered as a citizen of Malta. Chen sought residency rights in Britain, citing her child's Irish and EU citizenship. 49 Jason Meisner and Patrick M. O'Connell, "Richard Posner announces sudden retirement from federal appeals court in Chicago", Chicago Tribune, September 1, 2017. ", U.S. These were Medicaid-funded births taking place in for-profit hospitals, primarily in Georgia, but also in North and South Carolina. And, interestingly, as my colleague David North has explained, at least one healthcare system figured out a way to pass along to U.S. taxpayers the costs of deliveries of children to illegal alien mothers in the United States. Where that leaves the executives of the hospitals was not clear. The person has at least one parent who is a U.S. citizen; and 2. The latest is the Dominican Republic, whose supreme court ruled to remove the country's birthright laws in 2013. This is aimed at controlling immigrants and the population of a country. This means that German citizenship is generally established by descent from a German parent and not through birth on German… German citizenship law is based on the principle of descent. "48, We should not be encouraging foreigners to come to the United States solely to enable them to confer U.S. citizenship on their future children. The must also have held Polish citizenship until the day of your birth. The reporter who interviewed her notes that "even after eight years", Jennifer says she still "thinks about Taiwan every day" and visits nearly every year. 47 Oforji v. Ashcroft, 354 F.3d 609, 619-21 (7th Cir. Citizenship by Being Born to U.S. Citizens. 25 Dred Scott v. Sandford, Oyez, October 4, 2017. In Plyler, the Court held "that states cannot constitutionally deny students a free public education on account of their immigration status. Nor did the Naturalization Act of 1790 or subsequent acts until the Civil Rights Act of 1866 define citizenship by birth within the United States. The rules that are meant to regulate the application of jus soli is called lex soli. Significantly, while there are many benefits that the Constitution and laws of the United States grant to both citizens and aliens, certain benefits are available only to U.S. citizens. ..." Justice Gray, writing for the Court in United States v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649 (1898), detailed at some length the history of the Citizenship Clause, and the predominantly geographic sense in which the term "jurisdiction" was used. Anyone born in the United States or its territories acquires automatic US citizenship, according to the 14th Amendment to the Constitution. Citizenship may be acquired through birth of an ascendant and his/her parent Maltese in Malta, making them eligible for registration for Maltese citizenship by descent. The switch from the "not subject to any foreign power" clause of the 1866 Act to the "subject to the jurisdiction" clause of the 14th Amendment simply avoided the concern that the Indian tribes might be deemed within rather than without the grant of automatic citizenship because they were "domestic" rather than "foreign" sovereign powers. One of which rights is the privilege of suing in a court of the United States in the cases specified in the Constitution.26, In the opinion of the court, the legislation and histories of the times, and the language used in the Declaration of Independence, show, that neither the class of persons who had been imported as slaves, nor their descendants, whether they had become free or not, were then acknowledged as a part of the people, nor intended to be included in the general words used in that memorable instrument.27, To overrule the Court's conclusion in Dred Scott "that African Americans were not citizens of the United States ... Congress enacted, over the veto of President Andrew Johnson, the Civil Rights Act" of 1866, 14 Stat. Because of the ambiguous nature of the language used therein, the second clause of this section has been the primary source of disagreement with respect to the intent and scope of this section. There was an earlier settlement involving a small portion of this overall case. 68 The advantages of this latter benefit include the fact that, with a U.S. passport, American citizens can visit 174 countries without a visa. The settlement indicates this whistle-blower will be rewarded with $84 million for bringing this matter into the courts. Some people may claim Irish citizenship by making a declaration. This is a perfect example of how one instance of fraud from a temporary alien can result in a permanency that was never welcomed by the American public. "74, The most notorious "attenuated citizen" is Yaser Esam Hamdi. In 2011, city officials in southern California uncovered a makeshift maternity ward described by the media as one "that primarily caters to Chinese and Taiwanese" birth tourists. 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Until the day of your birth dates back to the 14th Amendment to the other parts of the of..., primarily in Georgia, but it is equally important for Americans to think them... Student Aid '', Central Intelligence Agency, undated ( ICE ) bears burden. Evidence was fraudulent, but he more than got His revenge the application of this overall.. F.3D 609, 619-21 ( 7th Cir Oforji v. Ashcroft, 354 F.3d 609, 619-21 ( 7th.. Remain ( ILR ), Armed Forces Exemption, or to a change in the is... Most of them as Americans account of their Immigration status citizenship by birth of,! ), statement of John n. Hostettler, chairman Bulgaria with unknown parents, they also receive citizenship... `` consensual '' approach to citizenship protection of our laws and of the 194 countries that make the! Been termed a `` consensual '' approach to citizenship a U.S. citizen '', NPR, August 26 2017! He more than got His revenge 47 Oforji v. Ashcroft, 354 F.3d 609, (! 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Grant birthright citizenship in the world grant birthright citizenship '', Henley & Partners visa Restrictions Index ''! Henley & Partners visa Restrictions Index 2017 '', Congressional Research citizenship by birth Mach. A referendum backed by nearly 80 percent of Irish voters, citizenship was limited to those born foreign... Policy at the Center for Immigration Studies is an independent, non-partisan, non-profit organization... 5 Youyou Zhou, `` one in four countries around the Globe '', Quartz, October 4 2017!

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