Explain in detail the Gharanas of Kathak. By the time the colonial European officials arrived in India, Kathak already became famed as a court entertainment and was more of a fusion of ancient Indian classical dance form and Persian-Central Asian dance forms with the dancers being referred as ânautch girlsâ. Unless otherwise specified, all content is made available under the CC-BY-NC-SA 4.0 Licence, though additional terms may apply. Learn. Native to North India, Kathak (pronounced “Kah-tahk”) is one of the six classical Indian dance forms. Image Credit: http://www.indiandance.co.za/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/P2_MG_0156.jpg, In the midst of such upheaval, the families made effort in keeping this ancient dance form from dying out and continued teaching the form including training boys. 4 Karma. There are no deflections and no use of sharp bends or curves of the upper or lower part of the body. His poem ‘Tere ishq nachaya karke ‘Thaiyya Thaiyya’ (Your love makes me dance ‘thaiyya thaiyya’) divests a very potent energy to the word ‘thaiyya’, and it seems to encapsulate the intensity and passion of love and its expression through dance. The word Gharana comes from the Hindi word ‘ghar’, which means house. Pallabi Chakravorty has provided a very interesting analysis of this aspect. The costume for Muslim female dancers includes a skirt along with a tight fitting trouser called churidar or pyjama and a long coat to cover the upper body and hands. His theories have been analyzed, utilized, and critiqued by many. The instrumental sections used a variety of the eight-beat folk tal kaharva, and the harmonium repeated one or another of the kavita’s phrases as a lahra or cyclical melody. Jugalbandi, a friendly competition between the percussion player and the dancer is also a popular piece in a Kathak recital. Mention of the community of Kathaks does not come before the 19th century, from when onward they become really important players in the history of this dance form, actively dancing in Awadh, and also accompanying as musicians and teaching the tawaifs of those times. Bharhut, a village in the Satna district of Madhya Pradesh, India stands as a representative of early Indian art. In these classical forms the dancers are supposed to display the solitude and inwardness of a dancer who is immersed in performing for an invisible god, who is called the ‘ultimate patron’. (Credit System) New Syllabus (Applicable from the Academic Year 2015-16) A manjira that is hand cymbals and sarangi or harmonium are also used most often. The doyen of Benaras Gharana was Sitara Devi, who passed away in 2014. It takes its movements from life, stylizes them, and adds the complex rhythmic patterns. Thus, in order to study the history of Kathak, one has to trace it to multiple sources and not restrict it to a linear narrative. Kathak dance in Pracheen kal/Mandir kal (kathavachak and Rasdhar tradition, etc.) This is not to deny the history of the respective Gharanas before the 1930s, but rather points to the process of creating and projecting social identities, and establishing a distinct identity of oneself and one’s group. These components can be viewed in the ‘Lucknow and Jaipur Gharana of Kathak’ video in this module. We know from oral history that the Nawab of Rampur Hamid Ali Khan was an important patron of the Kathak family. Write. Kathak has been enriched greatly by the contributions of musicians, dancers, professional women artists and court and landlord patronage. In the invocation part the dancer offers respect to her guru and musicians onstage and invocation to Hindu gods and goddesses through mudras or hand gestures and facial expressions if the group follows Hindu tradition. A few of his Thumris and Dadras can be seen in Guru Malti Shyam’s video on Thumris that is a part of this module. Wandering Kathakars communicated stories from the great epics and ancient mythology through dance, songs and music. Eventually the social stigma associated with nautch girls added with highly critical and despicable attitude from the Christian missionaries and British officials, who held them and the Devadasis of South India as harlots, disgraced such systems. The nautch girls were not only disgraced by the newspapers and officials of colonial rule but were also suppressed economically by pressurising their patrons to cease financial support. 2. An avertaan is a cycle of a taal. Additionally, the footwork in Kathak not only comprises of variations in speed but also of executing complex rhythmic patterns by moving the feet in a variety of ways. Dance. Asian Dance. Kathak dance in Pracheen kal/Mandir kal (kathavachak and Rasdhar tradition, etc.) The text on Kathak provides an excellent overview of the form, incorporating a wealth of information on its origin and salient features. He is famous for his dancer roles in iconic movies like Jhanak Jhanak Payal Baje (1955) and Baiju Bawra (1952). Bindadin Maharaj died in 1912 and is believed to have been born between 1836-1845 and the reign of Wajid Ali Shah lasted from 1847-1856 after which he was exiled to Kolkata. He received the Sangeet Natak Akademy Award at the age of 28. Tellings and Texts: Music, Literature and Performance in North India. Kathak, the word itself means storytelling; it is the dance form in which the artist tells the story through song, music along with movements of hands and facial expressions. 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